Typical cost of Phase I Environmental Site Assessments and : A Consumer’s Guide

Typical cost of Phase I Environmental Site Assessments and : A Consumer’s Guide

So you’ve just bought a property, or are about to, and somebody has told you that you need a Phase 1 Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) and you want to know how much they cost. Or you want to know why some cost more than others and what you are getting for your money. This is totally understandable.

We here at MORAN ROCKS LLC understand that navigating the process can be difficult and so we are releasing the comprehensive consumer guide to help you figure out what a Phase 1 ESA is, and why it costs what it costs. To begin, lets discuss a typical Phase 1 ESA. The typical cost for a Phase I ESA ranges from $1,950 to $7,500, with the average cost being around $2,600 to $3,200. The key factors that drive the cost of a Phase I ESA include:


Get at Free Quote

  1. Property Size and Characteristics
    • Larger properties with more buildings and structures will cost more, as they require more time for the site inspection and records review.
    • Rural or remote properties may cost more due to increased travel time for the environmental consultant.
    • Properties with a complex history like in the examples above or known environmental issues will also cost more.
  2. Records Review
    • Reviewing historical records, such as aerial photos, fire insurance maps, and government databases, can take significant time and effort with larger and more complex sites requiring more time and research as well as finding additional sources of information if needed. This is a major cost driver.
    • Properties with a long history or located in urban areas tend to require more extensive records review, increasing the cost. Sites will little history will be easier for the environmental professional to review than sites with a longer history. If you know that the subject property is a property without alot of history, such as a site that was built in the last 20 years and used for the same purpose the whole time, then you should let the environmental professional know right away that is the case so they can take that into account when estimating the cost. Make sure also to explicitly ask the consultant to take this minimal history into account when creating their cost proposal for you.
  3. Site Inspection
    • The time required to physically inspect the property is a key cost factor. Larger or more complex sites will require more inspection time.
    • The site inspection involves a walk-through to identify potential environmental concerns.
  4. Consultant Qualifications and Experience
    • Phase I ESAs must be conducted by an Environmental Professional with specific education, training, and experience.
    • Consultants with more expertise and credentials will typically charge higher rates.
  5. Report Preparation
    • Compiling the findings into a comprehensive Phase I ESA report is a significant task that adds to the overall cost.
    • More complex sites require more detailed reporting and analysis.
  6. Turnaround Time
    • Rush or expedited service for the Phase I ESA can increase the cost, sometimes by 25% or more.

You can see the many components that factor into the cost. Lets dive into more detail into certain components below.

Records Review

Records review is an involved and details process that requires the environmental professional to do a comprehensive review of various record sources to reconstruct the property’s history and identify potential environmental concerns. The typical records reviewed are:

  • Historical Aerial Photographs: These can reveal past uses of the property and surrounding areas, such as presence of buildings, storage tanks, waste disposal sites, or industrial activity. There can be just a few, or tens of aerials to review for the subject property and each surrounding property. And they often must be sourced from the multiple providers.
  • Sanborn Maps (if available): These historical fire insurance maps provide detailed information on past building uses, potential hazardous materials storage, and underground features. If available they are quite helpful and might make others parts of the process a little easier, but they add additional processing time.
  • City Directories: These historical listings can reveal past occupants of the property and surrounding businesses, potentially indicating past industrial uses or potential polluters.
  • Regulatory Database Searches: Federal and state environmental databases are searched to identify records of environmental violations, registered underground storage tanks (USTs), or hazardous waste generation on the property or nearby. Examples include databases like CERCLIS (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Information System) and RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) databases.
  • Building Department Records: These records can reveal permits for construction, demolition, renovations, or storage tanks, potentially indicating past uses of hazardous materials or potential environmental concerns.
  • Tax Maps and Filings: These documents provide ownership history and may reveal past uses or potential environmental issues reported during property transfers.
  • Title Reports and Environmental Liens: These reports identify ownership history and any outstanding environmental liens or restrictions on the property due to past contamination.
  • Other Records (as applicable): Depending on the property’s location and history, additional records like well logs, environmental site studies (if available), or military records might be reviewed.

Sometimes pursuing the records requires showing up in person and dealing with governmental organizations.

Extracting Meaning from the Records:

The environmental professional will not just compile these records; they will analyze them to identify potential red flags. For example, a history of industrial use on the property or nearby might suggest a higher risk of contamination. Discrepancies between different records could also warrant further investigation.

A closer look at the Site Inspection

The site visit is a crucial component of a Phase I ESA. It’s best to do this part with at least a base amount of knowledge of the history of the property so that you know what concerns to look out for. The complete site inspection process includes:

Pre-Visit Preparation:

Before stepping foot on the property, the environmental professional will:

  • Review Background Materials: This includes historical records, aerial photographs, regulatory database searches, and previous environmental reports (if available) to gain an understanding of the site’s past uses and potential environmental concerns.
  • Develop a Site Visit Checklist: This tailored checklist ensures a comprehensive inspection, focusing on areas of potential risk identified during the background review.

The On-Site Inspection:

The site visit typically involves the following:

  • General Observations: The professional will assess the overall condition of the property, including buildings, structures, paved areas, unpaved areas, drainage patterns, and evidence of potential environmental issues like stressed vegetation, stained soil, or unusual odors.
  • Storage Tanks: Aboveground Storage Tanks (ASTs) and Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) will be identified and inspected for leaks, corrosion, or improper labeling.
  • Waste Management Practices: The professional will observe how waste materials (hazardous or non-hazardous) are handled, stored, and disposed of on the property.
  • Drains and Sumps: Floor drains, sumps, and storm drains will be inspected for potential releases of contaminants.
  • Electrical Equipment: Large transformers and electrical equipment may contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), a hazardous material. The professional will identify these and assess their condition.
  • Asbestos-Containing Materials (ACMs): The professional will look for potential ACMs in building materials like insulation, ceiling tiles, and flooring. While sampling is not part of a Phase I ESA, noting the presence of potential ACMs is important.
  • Interviews : The professional will attempt to interview current occupants, past owners, or neighboring property owners to gather additional information about the site’s history and past uses.

Documentation is Key:

Throughout the site visit, the professional will be taking detailed notes and photographs to document their observations. These will be incorporated into the final Phase I ESA report.

What’s Not Included in the Site Visit:

It’s important to understand that a Phase I ESA site visit is a visual inspection and does not involve:

  • Sampling of soil, water, or air: Separate testing may be recommended based on the findings of the site visit.
  • Subsurface investigations: Unearthing buried objects or taking soil samples is not part of a Phase I ESA.
  • Detailed structural assessments: The inspection focuses on environmental concerns, not structural integrity.

Qualifications and Standards

The Environmental Professional (EP): Qualifications Matter

The core of a reliable Phase I ESA is the Environmental Professional (EP) who conducts the assessment. The EPA has define as EP as someone who meets these qualifications:

  • 3 years and a license: A state- or tribal-issued certification or license and three years of relevant, full-time work experience.
  • 5 years and a bachelors: A bachelor’s degree or higher in science or engineering and five years of relevant, full-time work experience.
  • Ten years experience: Ten years of relevant, full-time work experience.
  • Professional Licenses (Optional but Beneficial): While not mandatory, holding a Professional Engineer (PE) or Professional Geologist (PG) license issued by a state demonstrates additional professional qualifications and expertise.
  • Continuing Education: EPs must stay up-to-date with the latest regulations, standards, and practices by participating in continuing education programs.

ASTM E1527-21: The Guiding Standard

The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International has established the E1527-21 standard, which outlines the specific requirements for conducting a Phase I ESA. This standard ensures consistency and quality across Phase I ESAs conducted by qualified professionals. This Standard has been determined by the EPA to meet the definition of All Appropriate Inquiries as required to obtain certain protections from liability under the federal Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensations and Liability Act (CERCLA, aka Superfund) Here are some key aspects of the standard:

  • Scope of Work: The standard defines the minimum requirements for a Phase I ESA.
  • Record Sources: ASTM E1527-21 specifies types of records that should be reviewed during the ESA process, such as historical aerial photographs, regulatory database searches, and building department records.
  • Evaluation of Findings: The standard requires the EP to evaluate the information collected and identify Recognized Environmental Conditions (RECs), which are the presence or likely presence of any hazardous substances or petroleum products on, at, or in the vicinity of the property. Additionally, the EP needs to assess for Controlled RECs (CRECs) – past releases of hazardous substances that have been addressed – and Historical RECs (HRECs) – past releases that may have affected the property.
  • Report Content: The standard dictates the format and content of the Phase I ESA report, ensuring a consistent and comprehensive document that summarizes the findings and potential environmental concerns.

Beyond the Standards: Experience and Expertise

While qualifications and standards are crucial, an EP’s experience and expertise can significantly impact the quality of the Phase I ESA. Here’s what to consider:

  • Specific Industry Experience: If the property has a history of a specific industry (e.g., gas station, dry cleaner), an EP with experience in those areas might be able to identify potential environmental issues more effectively.
  • Geographic Knowledge: Understanding local environmental regulations and historical land uses in the area can be a valuable asset for the EP.

Choosing the Right Environmental Professional:

By understanding the qualifications and standards required for a Phase I ESA, you can make informed decisions when selecting an environmental professional. Look for an EP who possesses the necessary credentials, adheres to ASTM E1527-21 standards, and has experience relevant to the specific property you’re interested in.

Peace of Mind Through a Quality Phase I ESA:

A Phase I ESA conducted by a qualified EP following ASTM E1527-21 standards provides peace of mind by offering a comprehensive assessment of potential environmental risks. This empowers you to make informed decisions about your property purchase, renovation, or development.

The Importance of a Thorough Inspection:

A meticulous site visit forms the backbone of a reliable Phase I ESA. By combining on-site observations with background research, the environmental professional can build a comprehensive picture of the property’s environmental history and potential risks. This information empowers you to make informed decisions about your investment.

Durations and Timeframes

Here’s a closer look at the typical durations for each main component of a Phase I ESA:

  • Background Review (1-3 business days): This involves gathering and reviewing historical records, aerial photographs, regulatory database searches, and previous environmental reports (if available). The time can vary depending on the complexity of the property and the ease of obtaining records.
  • Site Visit (0.5 – 1 day): A qualified environmental professional will conduct a thorough inspection of the property, typically taking half a day to a full day depending on the size and complexity of the site.
  • Data Analysis and Report Preparation (2-5 business days): The environmental professional will analyze the collected data, evaluate findings for potential environmental concerns, and prepare a comprehensive report. The complexity of the findings and the length of the report can influence this timeframe.
  • Review and Finalization (1-2 business days): The report undergoes internal review and may require revisions based on feedback. You’ll then have a chance to review the final report before it’s finalized.

Additional Considerations:

  • Database Update Delays: Regulatory databases might experience occasional update delays, potentially impacting the research timeline.
  • Unexpected Findings: If the site visit or records review reveals unexpected environmental concerns, further investigation might be necessary, extending the overall timeframe.

Communication is Key:

It’s crucial to maintain open communication with your environmental consulting firm throughout the Phase I ESA process. Discuss your desired turnaround time with them upfront, and they can adjust the scope of work or expedite certain phases, if feasible, to meet your needs.

The Takeaway: A Well-Planned Process

While the exact duration of a Phase I ESA can vary, understanding the typical timeframes for each component can help you manage expectations. Choosing a qualified environmental consulting firm with experience in efficient Phase I ESA execution can ensure a smooth and timely process.

The Value Proposition: Why a Phase I ESA Matters

While cost is a consideration, a Phase I ESA offers significant value for your investment:

  • Reduced Risk: Identifying potential environmental issues can save you from significant cleanup costs and potential liabilities down the road.
  • Informed Decision Making: Knowing the environmental history of a property empowers you to make informed decisions about purchase, renovation, or development.
  • Improved Negotiation Leverage: A Phase I ESA report can be used during negotiations to adjust the purchase price or secure environmental remediation commitments from the seller.
  • Peace of Mind: A thorough assessment provides peace of mind and allows you to move forward with your project with confidence.

The Pitfalls of Low Budgets:

Cutting corners on a Phase I ESA can have serious consequences:

  • Limited Research: Inadequate research into past uses or environmental databases might miss critical red flags.
  • Superficial Site Visit: A rushed inspection could overlook potential environmental issues on the property.
  • Less Experienced Professional: Hiring a less qualified professional might result in a less thorough assessment.
  • Incomplete Report: A skimpy report may not adequately assess the potential environmental risks, leading to inaccurate conclusions and potentially exposing you to liability.

Finding the Right Balance:

Don’t be afraid to discuss your budget with our team at MORAN ROCKS LLC. We can tailor a Phase I ESA scope of work that meets your needs and provides an appropriate level of environmental protection for your investment. Here are some tips for getting the most value:

  • Be Upfront About Your Budget: Discuss your budget limitations with us and see what level of service we can provide within that range.
  • Prioritize Risk: If the property is a low-risk residential lot, a less comprehensive assessment might be sufficient. However, for high-risk properties (e.g., former industrial site), a more thorough assessment is crucial.
  • Get Multiple Quotes: Compare quotes from several qualified environmental consulting firms to ensure you are getting a fair price.
  • Ask Questions: Don’t hesitate to ask us questions about the proposed scope of work, the qualifications of our professionals, and the methodology we use.

In Summary

The typical cost for a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) ranges from $1,950 to $7,500, with the average being around $2,600 to $3,200. The main factors that drive the cost include:

  1. Property size and characteristics – Larger properties with more buildings and complex histories tend to cost more.
  2. Records review – Reviewing historical records like aerial photos, fire insurance maps, and regulatory databases can be a significant cost, especially for properties with long histories.
  3. Site inspection – The time required for the on-site inspection is a key cost factor, with larger or more complex sites requiring more inspection time.
  4. Consultant qualifications and experience – More experienced and credentialed environmental professionals typically charge higher rates.
  5. Report preparation – Compiling the findings into a comprehensive report takes significant time, especially for complex sites.
  6. Turnaround time – Rush or expedited service can increase the cost by 25% or more.

It is very important to work with a qualified Environmental Professional (EP) who meets the ASTM E1527-21 standards for Phase I ESAs. Phase 1 ESAs a very cheap “insurance policy” reducing your risk, informing your decisions, improving your negotiation leverage, and providing peace of mind.

We advise against cutting corners on the Phase I ESA, as that can lead to limited research, a superficial site visit, less experienced professionals, and an incomplete report. Instead, we recommend finding the right balance by being upfront about your budget, prioritizing risk, getting multiple quotes, and asking questions to ensure you get the appropriate level of environmental assessment.

Taking the Next Step:

At MORAN ROCKS LLC, we are committed to providing high-quality Phase I ESAs that protect your investment and provide peace of mind. Contact us today for a free consultation and discuss how we can help you navigate the Phase I ESA process with confidence.

What is a Recognized Environmental Condition (REC) and Why Does it Matter?

What is a Recognized Environmental Condition (REC) and Why Does it Matter?

Recognized Environmental Conditions (RECs): Understanding This Key Environmental Assessment Term

When it comes to real estate and property development, there’s an important environmental assessment term you need to be familiar with: Recognized Environmental Condition (REC). But what exactly is a REC, and why does it matter?

A Recognized Environmental Condition, or REC, is a term used in the Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA) process to describe the presence, or likely presence, of any hazardous substances or petroleum products in, on, or at a property due to a release to the environment. In other words, a REC indicates there is evidence that a harmful substance has been released and may still be present on the property.

Identifying RECs is a crucial part of evaluating the environmental risks and liabilities associated with a property. Finding a REC means that further investigation, known as a Phase II ESA, is needed to determine the extent of any contamination and potential risks.

If you are concerned that you may have a REC on your property, reach out to MORAN ROCKS and we will be able to assist you.

How are RECs Identified?

RECs are identified through the comprehensive review conducted during a Phase I ESA. This process involves:

  • Historical record reviews – Examining past uses of the property and surrounding area to identify any activities that may have involved hazardous materials.
  • Site inspections – Physically evaluating the property for any visible signs of contamination, storage of hazardous materials, or evidence of spills/releases.
  • Interviews – Talking to current and past owners, occupants, and other knowledgeable parties to gather information about the property’s history.
  • Regulatory database reviews – Checking government records for any reported spills, leaks, or other environmental incidents associated with the property.

If the Phase I ESA uncovers evidence of a past release or material threat of a future release of hazardous substances, this is documented as a REC. Common examples of RECs include:

  • Underground storage tanks
  • On-site hazardous materials storage
  • Past industrial or commercial uses involving chemicals
  • Spills or leaks identified in records

Why Do RECs Matter?

Recognized Environmental Conditions are an important consideration for anyone involved in real estate transactions or property development projects. Identifying RECs is crucial because it:

  • Helps assess environmental liability and risk
  • Triggers the need for further environmental investigation
  • Impacts the value, use, and redevelopment potential of a property
  • Can lead to requirements for cleanup or mitigation efforts

Ultimately, properly identifying and addressing RECs is essential for protecting human health, the environment, and your investment in a property. By understanding what a REC is and how it’s identified, you can make more informed decisions and better manage environmental risks.

Why Phase I Environmental Site Assessments Matter for Real Estate Developers and Owners

Why Phase I Environmental Site Assessments Matter for Real Estate Developers and Owners

In the fast-paced world of real estate development, securing the perfect property can feel like winning the lottery. But before you break out the champagne, there’s one crucial step often overlooked: the Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA).

Why is a Phase I ESA so important? It’s your shield against unforeseen environmental liabilities lurking beneath the surface. Contaminated soil, asbestos, underground storage tanks – these hidden hazards can not only derail your development plans but also leave you facing hefty cleanup costs and legal repercussions.

Here’s what a Phase I ESA does for you:

Uncovers potential environmental risks

This comprehensive assessment, conducted by qualified professionals, delves into the property’s history, identifying past uses, regulatory violations, and potential sources of contamination.

Protects you from liability

Completing a Phase I ESA demonstrates environmental due diligence. This can shield you from future legal claims and contribute to a strong defense in case of unforeseen environmental issues.

Facilitates informed decision-making

The report provides valuable insights into potential cleanup costs and necessary remediation measures. This knowledge empowers you to make informed decisions about the project’s feasibility and budget.

Enhances marketability

A clean Phase I ESA report can significantly improve your property’s marketability, attracting investors and buyers seeking peace of mind.

Side view hand writing checklist

Beyond the legalities, a Phase I ESA offers peace of mind. It allows you to:

  • Focus on development, not clean-up: By identifying potential issues early on, you can avoid costly delays and unforeseen expenses associated with environmental remediation.
  • Maintain a positive reputation: Demonstrating environmental responsibility through due diligence builds trust with investors, stakeholders, and the community

Remember: Skipping a Phase I ESA is a gamble, one that could cost you significantly more than the upfront investment in the assessment.

Here are some additional points to consider:

  • When is a Phase I ESA necessary? While crucial for most commercial and industrial properties, it’s also advisable for residential developments with potential risks, such as brownfield sites or properties near historical industrial areas.
  • Who conducts a Phase I ESA? Engage a qualified environmental professional with experience in your specific region and industry.
  • What happens if the Phase I ESA identifies risks? The report will outline the identified concerns and recommend further investigation (Phase II ESA) if necessary.

By prioritizing a Phase I ESA, you’re not just protecting your investment, you’re safeguarding your future and contributing to a more sustainable development landscape.

What Makes a Good Environmental Consultant in South Florida?

What Makes a Good Environmental Consultant in South Florida?

What Makes a Good Environmental Consultant in South Florida?

If you’re looking to develop land, obtain environmental permits, or ensure your business complies with environmental regulations in South Florida, hiring a qualified and experienced environmental consultant is crucial. But what exactly makes for an effective environmental consultant in areas like Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach Counties? In this article, we’ll outline the key qualities and qualifications to look for.

construction worker goes plans site

Deep Knowledge of Local Environmental Regulations

An environmental consultant is only as good as their command of the relevant environmental laws and permitting processes. The complex web of local, state and federal regulations in South Florida means consultants working in this region must maintain an intimate understanding of rules issued by agencies like the South Florida Water Management District (SFWMD), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) and local municipalities. Experienced consultants will have a strong track record successfully securing environmental permits and compliance for clients throughout Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach Counties.

Free law image

Technical Expertise Navigating Permitting

Beyond just regulatory knowledge, consultants must also offer the scientific and technical expertise to successfully assess sites for protected species and habitats, delineate wetlands, develop mitigation and restoration plans, fill out permit applications, and more. The best consultants feature advanced degrees in environmental science/engineering fields, demonstrated experience conducting site assessments and preparing permit materials, and backgrounds working directly for permitting agencies. This qualifies them to adeptly serve as a liaison between clients and complex, multi-agency permitting processes.

Strong Professional Relationships

Having good working relationships with agency personnel responsible for reviewing and approving environmental permits can go a long way towards efficient approvals. The best consultants maintain frequent correspondence with regulators, provide complete, carefully prepared applications, and have a reputation for reliability among agency staff. These positive working relationships facilitate information-sharing and allow consultants to lobby reviewers for prompt attention on their clients’ permits.

close up shot of a handshake
Photo by olia danilevich on Pexels.com

Focus on Client Goals & Communication

At the end of the day, an environmental consultant’s mission is advancing the development, compliance and environmental performance goals of their clients. Achieving permitting milestones or passing compliance inspections should never overshadow the growth, fiscal and operational priorities of the business. Experienced consultants strike this balance, while proactively communicating with clients each step of the way. Clear deliverable schedules, concrete action plans, progress reporting and an open line of communication demonstrate a commitment to client service.

So in evaluating environmental consultants to support land development and business operations in Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach Counties, be sure to consider their regional regulatory expertise, technical qualifications, agency relationships and client focus. Firms and specialists demonstrating strengths across all these areas will offer optimal value securing permits and ensuring lasting compliance.

How do I minimize the cost of petroleum assessment and remediation?

How do I minimize the cost of petroleum assessment and remediation?

Here are some tips for minimizing the cost of petroleum contamination assessments and cleanups at sites like gas stations:

  1. Work with State Trust Funds & Programs – Many states including Florida, administered through the Petroleum Restoration Program offer reimbursement of corrective action costs through a special fund set aside for petroleum cleanup work. Applying for coverage early is key. Some programs in Florida have already been closed, such as the Early detection Incentive (EDI) program. Others like the Abandoned Tank Restoration Program (ATRP), were closed but have been reopened, though your site will need to meet strict criteria to qualify.
  2. Use Risk-Based Closure Strategies – Develop remediation goals based on actual site risks rather than always achieving stringent default cleanup levels. In Florida you can achieve what is called “Conditional Closure” which will force some usage restrictions on the property, but will prevent the high costs required to meet the the target cleanup levels which would not require conditions. This is a really great option for some, but it can impact the value when selling the property later.
  3. Establish Realistic Cleanup Timeframes – Extending remediation time horizons using longer-term attenuation and monitoring approaches costs less than rapid cleanup. You will have to get approval for changes to the time frames from the regulatory body, which would be the local county and then the state.
  4. Employ Passive Remediation Technologies – Consider less energy-intensive methods like bioremediation, phytoremediation, or chemical oxidation which require less equipment expense over time.
  5. Phase Projects Efficiently – Prioritize the highest risk /highest contamination areas first while incrementally investigating other areas over time only if necessary to control costs.
  6. Select Cost-Competitive Contractors – Solicit multiple competitive bids from reputable environmental services contractors and negotiate pricing.
  7. Discuss Cost Saving Options with Regulators – Regulators will often work collaboratively with site owners to achieve regulatory compliance in a flexible, cost-considerate manner. In fact, it is very important to understand that despite how it may sometimes seem, the regulators want to get the property rehabilitated and back to good use as quick as possible. It is important to get them to help you meet your goals by sharing with them your intentions for the property, your cost concerns regarding the standard methods and discussing with them cheaper but equally effective solutions.

With strategic project planning and execution focused on optimization rather than expediency, substantial assessment and remediation savings are possible.

Will the Phase 2 ESA interfere with my onsite operations?

Will the Phase 2 ESA interfere with my onsite operations?

Performing a Phase II Environmental Site Assessment at an active facility like a gas station, dry cleaner, or other retail business does have the potential to cause some disruptions, but there are ways to minimize interference with operations:

  • Schedule sampling during less busy times and isolate portions of the site so most operations can continue unaffected. Sampling a fuel island at a time rather than closing the entire station.
  • For components like underground storage tanks, dispensers, and piping runs, much assessment and even remediation can happen without significantly curtailing station functions.
  • Testing within building interiors, especially if assessing vapor intrusion, may require temporarily closing access to certain areas which could impact site merchandising or office functions. This should be scheduled carefully.
  • Work with the assessment team to stage equipment, schedule noisy assessment activities like drilling or hammering outside of overnight hours if onsite businesses could be affected. Night work may be possible.
  • Establish clear pathways and protective areas for vehicle movement so customer access and deliveries can still occur even if certain areas are under assessment.
  • If more significant closures are unavoidable, provide ample advance notice to staff and customers citing regulatory requirements, make alternative arrangements to meet business operations needs.

With proper planning, oversight and communications, many Phase II field assessment activities can be structured to avoid major disruption, especially for facilities already accustomed to maintenance, upgrade and repair projects. Significant remediation actions would likely be more invasive.